Enrofloxacin 

  • Commonly Prescribed For: Certain Bacterial Infections
  • Species: Dogs and Cats
  • Therapeutic Class: Broad-spectrum Antibiotic

Basic Information:

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic widely used in veterinary medicine to combat various bacterial infections. This medication targets a range of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Haemophilus, Proteus, Yersinia, Serratia, Vibrio, Brucella, Chlamydia, staphylococci (including some methicillin-resistant strains), Mycoplasma, and Mycobacterium. Enrofloxacin works by interfering with bacterial DNA synthesis, leading to the death of the bacterial cells.

Veterinary Medicine Uses:

Enrofloxacin is effective in treating infections of the skin, urinary tract, respiratory system, and those arising from wounds. It provides an advantage in treating hard-to-manage infections that require penetration into body tissues, making it a strong candidate for addressing conditions such as osteomyelitis, sinus infections, otitis, and more severe infections like peritonitis and pleuritis. The drug's high bioavailability ensures effective levels are achieved in most body tissues, except the cerebral spinal fluid.

Potential Side-Effects:

While generally safe, enrofloxacin can cause side effects such as diarrhea or loose stools. More serious, albeit rare, effects include seizures, particularly in animals with existing neurological disorders, and cartilage damage in young animals if dosed inappropriately.

Drug Interactions:

Enrofloxacin should not be administered concurrently with certain drugs like iron supplements, antacids, and stomach protectants as these can interfere with its absorption and effectiveness. Additionally, it should not be given with dairy products because calcium can bind to the drug, reducing its efficacy.

Precautions:

It is crucial not to use enrofloxacin in puppies younger than 28 weeks due to potential cartilage damage. Caution is also advised in animals prone to seizures, and in those with severe liver or kidney disease, dosage adjustments may be necessary. Regular monitoring for signs of dehydration is recommended, and the drug should be used cautiously in animals at risk of kidney dysfunction.

Dosage and Administration:

Enrofloxacin is approved for oral, intramuscular, and intravenous administration in dogs, and oral administration in cats. The drug is well-absorbed and typically administered once daily to maximize compliance and effectiveness. Monitoring by a veterinarian is essential to adjust dosing as needed and to manage any potential side effects.